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Gum Diseases and Bad Breath (Halitosis)

Gum diseases could be categorized into two broad groups, namely gingivitis and periodontitis.

Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gingivae (gums) in most age ranges but manifests with greater frequency in youngsters and adults.

Periodontitis can be an inflammation with subsequent destruction with the other tooth-supporting structures, namely the alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum and subsequent loss in teeth. This issue mainly manifests noisy . mid-life with severity increasing within the elderly.

Gingivitis can or may progress to periodontitis state in the individual.

Gum diseases have been found being one of the most widespread chronic diseases throughout the world using a prevalence of between 90 and 100 % in older adults over 35 yrs . old in developing countries. It’s also been proved to be the explanation for tooth loss in individuals Forty years and above.

Halitosis bad breath is amongst the major consequences of gum diseases.

A number of the terms that are greatly linked to halitosis bad breath and gum diseases are listed below:

Dental Plaque- The primary requirement for the prevention and treating a disease can be an knowledge of its causes. The key cause of gum diseases is bacteria, which form an intricate about the tooth surface generally known as plaque. These bacteria’s are the root cause of bad breath.

Dental plaque is bacterial accumulations around the teeth or any other solid oral structures. If it’s of sufficient thickness, it seems as being a whitish, yellowish layer mainly along the gum margins on the tooth surface. Its presence can even be discerned by the conventional dye or fluorescent dye (demonstrated by illumination with ultraviolet light), disclosing solution or by scraping your tooth surface over the gum margins.

When plaque is examined beneath the microscope, it reveals a variety of different types of bacteria. Some desquamated oral epithelial cells and white blood cells may also be present. The micro-organisms detected vary based on the site where these are present.
You will find gram positive and gram negative organisms, filamentous and flagellated organisms, spirochetes and sometimes even small variety of even yeasts, mycoplasma and protozoa.

Clean tooth surfaces after brushing are normally paid by a thin layer of glycoproteins from saliva called pellicle. Pellicle permits the selective adherence of bacteria to the tooth surface.

In the initial few hours, the bacteria proliferate in order to create colonies. In addition, other organisms will likely populate the pellicle from adjacent areas to form a complex accumulation of mixed colonies. The pad present between your bacteria is called intermicrobial matrix forming about 25 per cent from the plaque volume. This matrix is mainly extra cellular carbohydrate polymers manufactured by the bacteria from dietary sugars; salivary and gingival fluid components; and dying and dead bacteria.

Small quantities of plaque are works with gingival or periodontal health. Some individuals can resist larger amounts of plaque for too long periods without developing destructive periodontitis (inflammation and destruction with the supporting tissues) whilst they will exhibit gingivitis (inflammation of the gums or gingiva).

Diet And Plaque Formation- Diet may play an essential part in plaque formation by modifying the quantity and composition of plaque. More the plaque formation would be, you will have more terrible breath.

Fermentable sugars increase plaque formation simply because they provide additional energy supply for bacterial metabolic process and provide the recycleables (substrate) for the production of extra cellular polysaccharides.

Secondary Factors

Although plaque is the responsible for gum diseases, a number of others deemed secondary factors, local and systemic, predispose towards plaque accumulation or alter the response of gum tissue to plaque. The neighborhood factors are:

1) Cavities from the teeth;

2) Faulty fillings;

3) Food impaction;

4) Poorly designed partial dentures (dentures);

5) Orthodontic appliances;

6) Misaligned teeth;

7) mouth-breathing

8) Grooves on teeth or roots near gum margins;

9) Reduced salivary flow; and,

10) Smoking cigarettes.

The systemic factors which potentially modify the gum tissues are:

1) Systemic diseases, e.g. type 2 diabetes, Down’s syndrome, AIDS, blood disorders while others;

2) Hormonal changes – during puberty, pregnancy, contraceptives intake and menopause;

3) Drug reactions, e.g. immunosuppressive drugs, antihypertensive drugs and antiepileptic drugs; and,

4) Dietary and nutritional factors, e.g. protein deficiency and vit c and B deficiency.

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