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Gum Disease and Smelly Breath (Halitosis)

Gum diseases might be categorized into two broad groups, namely gingivitis and periodontitis.

Gingivitis can be an inflammation of the gingivae (gums) in every age brackets but manifests with greater frequency in kids and adults.

Periodontitis is surely an inflammation with subsequent destruction with the other tooth-supporting structures, namely the alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum and subsequent lack of teeth. This disorder mainly manifests during the early mid-life with severity increasing inside the elderly.

Gingivitis can or may progress to periodontitis state in a individual.

Gum diseases have been found to get one of the most widespread chronic diseases all over the world which has a prevalence which is between 90 and 100 per-cent in grown-ups over 35 years in developing countries. It has also been shown to be the explanation for loss of teeth in individuals 40 years and above.

Terrible breath is probably the major consequences of gum diseases.

A number of the terms that are greatly connected with terrible breath and gum diseases are listed below:

Dental Plaque- The essential requirement of the prevention and treatment of an ailment can be an comprehension of its causes. The primary cause of gum diseases is bacteria, which form a fancy on the tooth surface referred to as plaque. These bacteria’s are the root cause of bad breath.

Dental plaque is bacterial accumulations for the teeth or other solid oral structures. If it is of sufficient thickness, it appears as a whitish, yellowish layer mainly down the gum margins around the tooth surface. Its presence can even be discerned by the conventional dye or fluorescent dye (demonstrated by illumination with ultraviolet light), disclosing solution or by scraping the teeth surface down the gum margins.

When plaque is examined within the microscope, it reveals a multitude of various kinds of bacteria. Some desquamated oral epithelial cells and white blood cells can be present. The micro-organisms detected vary in accordance with the site where they are present.
There are gram positive and gram negative organisms, filamentous and flagellated organisms, spirochetes and sometimes even small variety of even yeasts, mycoplasma and protozoa.

Clean tooth surfaces after brushing are normally covered by a skinny layer of glycoproteins from saliva called pellicle. Pellicle enables the selective adherence of bacteria towards the tooth surface.

During the first few hours, the bacteria proliferate to create colonies. Moreover, other organisms may also populate the pellicle from adjacent areas to create a complex accumulation of mixed colonies. The pad present between the bacteria is named intermicrobial matrix forming about 25 per cent from the plaque volume. This matrix is mainly extra cellular carbohydrate polymers made by the bacteria from dietary sugars; salivary and gingival fluid components; and dying and dead bacteria.

Small quantities of plaque are works with gingival or periodontal health. Many people can resist larger levels of plaque for too long periods without developing destructive periodontitis (inflammation and destruction in the supporting tissues) but they will exhibit gingivitis (inflammation of the gums or gingiva).

Diet And Plaque Formation- Diet may play a crucial part in plaque formation by modifying just how much and composition of plaque. More the plaque formation could be, you will have more terrible breath.

Fermentable sugars increase plaque formation since they provide additional energy supply for bacterial metabolic process and in addition provide the garbage (substrate) to the creation of extra cellular polysaccharides.

Secondary Factors

Although plaque is the primary cause of gum diseases, several others regarded as secondary factors, local and systemic, predispose towards plaque accumulation or alter the response of gum tissue to plaque. The local factors are:

1) Cavities from the teeth;

2) Faulty fillings;

3) Food impaction;

4) Poorly designed partial dentures (dentures);

5) Orthodontic appliances;

6) Misaligned teeth;

7) mouth-breathing

8) Grooves on teeth or roots near gum margins;

9) Reduced salivary flow; and,

10) Cigarette smoking.

The systemic factors which potentially modify the gum tissues are:

1) Systemic diseases, e.g. diabetes, Down’s syndrome, AIDS, blood disorders among others;

2) Hormonal changes – during puberty, pregnancy, contraceptives intake and menopause;

3) Drug reactions, e.g. immunosuppressive drugs, antihypertensive drugs and antiepileptic drugs; and,

4) Dietary and nutritional factors, e.g. protein deficiency and vitamin C and B deficiency.

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